Sunday, April 12, 2009

Nanoparticle Research Conducted by Pharma

Toxicology
Volume 259, Issue 3, 17 May 2009, Pages 140-148
Retrospective analysis of 4-week inhalation studies in rats with focus on fate and pulmonary toxicity of two nanosized aluminum oxyhydroxides (boehmite) and pigment-grade iron oxide (magnetite): The key metric of dose is particle mass and not particle surface area
Jürgen PauluhnCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author

aInstitute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharma, Department of Inhalation Toxicology, Building no. 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany

Abstract

This paper compares the pulmonary toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of three different types of poorly soluble dusts examined in repeated rat inhalation bioassays (6 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks). In these studies the fate of particles was studied during a 3–6-month postexposure period. This retrospective analysis included two types of aluminum oxyhydroxides (AlOOH, boehmite), high purity calcined, and agglomerated nanosized aluminas of very low solubility with primary isometric particles of 10 or 40 nm, and synthetic iron oxide black (Fe3O4 pigment grade). Three metrics of dose (actual mass concentration, surface area concentration, mass-based lung burden) were compared with pulmonary toxicity characterized by bronchoalveolar lavage. The results of this analysis provide strong evidence that pulmonary toxicity (inflammation) corresponds best with the mass-based cumulative lung exposure dose. The inhalation study with a MMAD of ≈0.5 μm yielded a higher pulmonary dose than MMADs in the range of 1–2 μm, a range most commonly used in repeated exposure inhalation studies. Hence, a key premise for the dosimetric adjustment across species is that comparable lung tissue doses should cause comparable effects. From that perspective, the determination of mass-based pulmonary lung burdens appears to be amongst the most important and critical nominator of dose and dose-related pulmonary toxicity.

Keywords: Nanoparticles; Repeated inhalation exposure; Disposition; Respirability; Clearance; Aggregates; Dose metric; Pulmonary toxicity; Dosimetry

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BrooklynDodger(s) comment: Big Pharma is turning its attention to nanoparticle toxicity by inhalation. Unfortunately, and maybe by design, the exposure levels and the effect responses didn't make it into the abstract. The Dodger(s) expect(s) that iron oxide would be the more potent inflammatory agent.

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